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Муниципальное бюджетное общеобразовательное учреждение «Средняя общеобразовательная школа с.Черный Яр» Тема проекта: Автор: Калюжный Николай 10 Б класс Руководитель: учитель английского языка Илюхина С.В. Место работы: МБОУ «СОШ с. Черный Яр» Черный Яр , 2012 Творческое название проекта: Seven Russian Vikings
The term Viking (from Old Norse víkingr) is customarily used to refer to the Norse explorers, warriors, merchants, and pirates who raided, traded, explored and settled in wide areas of Europe, Asia and the North Atlantic islands from the late 8th to the mid-11th century.
These Norsemen used their famed longships to travel as far east as Constantinople and the Volga River in Russia, and as far west as Iceland, Greenland, and Newfoundland. Thanks to them we were called Rus and got statehood
Rurik Status - The founder of the Rurik dynasty and the Russian state. Rurik was a Varangian chieftain who gained control of Ladoga in 862, built the Holmgard settlement near Novgorod, and founded the Rurik Dynasty which ruled Russia until the 17th century.
The only information about him is contained in the 12th-century Russian Primary Chronicle, which states that Chuds, Slavs, Merias, Veses and Krivichs "…drove the Varangians back beyond the sea, refused to pay them tribute, and set out to govern themselves". Afterwards the tribes started fighting each other and decided to invite Rurik to reestablish order.
Rurik Dynasty ruled Russia until the 17th century.
Status –the Father of "mother of Russian cities". Oleg is known as the Prophet (priest).
Oleg was a relative of the first ruler, Rurik, and was entrusted by Rurik to take care of both his kingdom and his young son Ingvar, or Igor. Oleg gradually took control of the Dnieper cities, captured Kiev and finally moved his capital from Novgorod.
The new capital was a convenient place to launch a raid against Tsargrad (Constantinople) in 911. Having fixed his shield to the gate of the imperial capital, Oleg won a favourable trade treaty, which eventually was of great benefit to both nations.
Oleg died under mysterious circumstances, and rather stupid. According to this legend, it was prophesied by the pagan priests that Oleg would take death from his stallion. Proud of his own foretelling abilities, he sent the horse away. Many years later he asked where his horse was, and was told it had died. He asked to see the remains and was taken to the place where the bones lay. When he touched the horse's skull with his boot a snake slithered from the skull and bit him. Oleg died, and completed a glorious career of the prince.
Igor Status - the most well-revenge Russian prince. Igor was a Varangian ruler of Kievan Rus' from 912 to 945.
He continued the work of Oleg- collecting tribute from neighboring peoples. He did this not so successful. Igor was killed while collecting tribute from the Drevlians in 945and was avenged by his wife, Olga of Kiev.
As a result, Olga changed the system of tribute gathering (poliudie) in what may be regarded as the first legal reform recorded in Eastern Europe.
Askold and Dir Status - lovers of beads and jewelry
Actually, they are two separate people, but they can be considered for a single. The main losers of the initial Russian history. Askold and Dir are semi-legendary rulers of Kiev who, according to the Primary Chronicle, were two of Rurik's voivodes in the 870s.
The Primary Chronicle relates that Askold and Dir were sanctioned by Rurik to go to Constantinople. When travelling on the Dnieper, they saw a settlement on a mountain. It was Kiev. Askold and Dir settled in the town and gathered a large number of fellow Varangians and began to rule the town and the land of the eastern Polans..
Oleg attacked and conquered Kiev around 882. According to the Primary Chronicle he tricked and killed Askold and Dir. Oleg pretending to be ill, stayed in the boat and sent to Askold and Dir notice that he was taking a lot of beads and jewelry. When those Kievan princes went on board to evaluate the goods, Oleg introduced himself and his companion: "I am the Prince Oleg, and behold there Ryurikov prince Igor." And it was all over
Today this place on the steep bank of the Dnieper is marked by a monument called Askold's Grave.
Sineus and Truvor Status- "their clan" and "their own Druzhina"
Sineus and Truvor were the brothers of Rurik. According to the Primary Chronicle, while Rurik settled in Novgorod, Sineous established himself at Belo Ozero, on the shores of lake Beloye. Truvor established himself at Izborsk. Truvor and Sineus died shortly after the establishment of their territories. Rurik then consolidated these lands into his own territory and thus laid the foundations for the Kievan Rus'
Sviatoslav I of Kiev Status - "Alexander of Macedon our ancient history." (Nikolai Karamzin, a Russian historian).
The son of Igor of Kiev and Olga, Sviatoslav is famous for his incessant campaigns in the east and south, which precipitated the collapse of two great powers of Eastern Europe—Khazaria and the First Bulgarian Empire; he also conquered numerous East Slavic tribes, defeated the Alans and the Volga Bulgars
According to the Primary Chronicle: upon his expeditions he carried with him neither wagons nor kettles, and boiled no meat, but cut off small strips of horseflesh, game or beef, and ate it after roasting it on the coals. Nor did he have a tent, but he spread out a horse-blanket under him, and set his saddle under his head, and all his retinue did likewise Sviatoslav was a blue-eyed male of average height but of stalwart build. He shaved his blond head and his beard but wore a bushy mustache and a sidelock as a sign of his nobility.
Sayings by Svyatoslav: «I come at you»; «The dead have no shame».
Vladimir Sviatoslavich the Great Status - The Baptist of All Russia.
Vladimir, born in 958, was the natural son and youngest son of Sviatoslav I of Kiev by his housekeeper Malusha. Malusha is described in the Norse sagas as a prophetess who lived to the age of 100 and was brought from her cave to the palace to predict the future. Malusha's brother Dobrynya was Vladimir's tutor and most trusted advisor.
Vladimir was baptized at Cherson, taking the Christian name of Basil
Returning to Kiev in triumph, he destroyed pagan monuments and established many churches, starting with the splendid Church of the Tithes (989) and monasteries on Mt. Athos.
Originally a pagan, Vladimir converted to Christianity in 988,and proceeded to baptise all of Kievan Rus'.
These Vikings were great people, and thanks to them our Russia became a Great Country.
Контактная Информация Фамилия, имя: Калюжный Николай 10 Б класс Руководитель: Илюхина С.В. Контакт: Астраханская область, МБОУ «СОШ с. Черный Яр», тел. (8512) 2-11-40, e-mail: [email protected]
Литература Петков С. В. Варяги: Государства викингов в Северо-Восточной Европе Петрухин В. Я. Легенда о призвании варягов и балтийский регион // Древняя Русь. Вопросы медиевистики. 2008. № 2 (32). С. 41-46. Рыбаков Б. А. Киевская Русь и русские княжества XII−XIII вв. — М., 1982. 591 с. Фомин В. В. Варяги и варяжская Русь. — М. 2005. с.439